Posted on May.25, 2010, under Tutorial
Detected the pathogen from the British tropical medicine, Sir William Boog Leishman was in 1900 in India. The dog is to be the most important endemic pathogen reservoir for human leishmaniasis, which occurs at present in central and northern Africa, Magadaskar and Brazil and in southern Europe, central France and western Switzerland.
The infection is caused in the European-Mediterranean area of pathogen Leishmania infantum. Currently, about 12 million people in 80 countries on all continents (except Australia) infected with Leishmania, every year about 1.5 to 2 million new cases. The closest active leishmaniasis Germany-Focus is the area around Paris
Leishmaniasis is transmitted by the biting sand flies. The parasites multiply in the mosquito gut, hiking, back in the fore-gut of the mosquito, and are ejected when the sting in the skin of dogs (or people). Here they are from the monocytes (white blood cells largest recorded increase) and himself. From the skin they travel via the bloodstream into the internal organs.
It is entirely possible that the Leishmaniasis is transmitted by the bite of sand flies. A direct transfer by wound fluid is theoretically possible – but not proven. Nevertheless, caution is leishmaniasis-infected dogs, which show open Hautlesionen infants (younger than five years) as a playmate to be made available. Direct transmission by blood products, however, is known.
The disease symptoms in dogs may occur suddenly or gradually. Most weight loss despite normal appetite and digestion occurs. This leads to muscle wasting and severe enlargement of the spleen. Most striking are the skin symptoms: hair is thin, dull, rough, too baldness in places, the skin peels. The nails are often brittle and grow longer than normal.
The acute course and lead to death 2:00 to 5:00 months. Spontaneous cures are rare. The chronic course can last for years (the incubation period is unknown, up to four years in dogs, humans are at least 30 years known).
Deltamethrin is a highly lipophilic (fat soluble) synthetic pyrethroid. Deltamethrin is used in malaria-endemic areas for more than 15 years for impregnating mosquito bed nets. The Chinese Shao scientists presented at the same time set a good efficacy of deltamethrin against sand flies. Worldwide deltamethrin was the late 80′s excellent results in the fight by sand flies, even at an extremely low concentration of 25 mg/m2, such as China, Brazil and Bolivia. Since the early 90′s dogs in China in deltamethrin solution (25 mg deltamethrin per dog to be bathed) to this – impregnated – to protect against mosquito bites sand. It was found that a once in 25 mg deltamethrin dog bathed for 70 days sand gnats “kills”. Side effects were not observed in dogs.
The active ingredient deltamethrin (DTM) is coupled to the binder in Scalibor Triphenyl phosphate (TPP), that is, as before DTM-TPP complex. The entire necklace is saturated with this DTM-TPP complex. Therefore, this surface is on the collar and not a ‘powder’ is, as often observed in other collars that are only superficially impregnated.
How to Remove Ticks
Previously it was believed, perfume and other essential oils would solve ticks better. Error! You just dig faster and deeper. The method by which the ticks cautious fingers as long and fast to spin in circles until they are dizzy and loosen your teeth, is also wrong: it can also bite then.
State of the “tick-removal research: So specifically pull straight up that they can not bite, because the ticks suck blood not immediately. The Mandible can not remain in their shoes!
For less skilful is a tick removal device capable with the tick on the head (and not at the back so that they will only put right!) Will be removed and packed.
Sharp forceps pinch off just the head of the tick. Unfortunately, often offered pliers, grasp the tick through its wide jaws tightly. As astonished a vet not bad, as he leafed through an animal order catalog, “Permanent is to endeavor to touch the body of the tick when removing as little press / to not filled with the pathogens gastro-intestinal channel contents into the host (human, animal to press), and this sly bring a gun on the market, which expresses the tick guaranteed. ”
Essential oils of tea tree oil-based or pure tea tree extract to keep – if far from all – only little ticks are only supposed gentle, for it irritates. Above all, the citrus scent in the tea tree oil, many dogs interfere significantly. It should never be given as a concentrate, tea tree oil for cats can be very harmful. Tea tree oil is for some experts, only the “eso-essential” update of the previously supposed panacea and Neo-Ballistol Ballistol. This was and is a better weapon lubricant.
image sources: www.susanamendez.com, www.animals-in-distress.eu, pathmicro.med.sc.edu